Urology Today.net

Site updated at Thursday, 12 May 2016

Common Urological Problems

Urinary Phosphate

Urinary Ions

A. CALCIUM
Calcium is a major ion present in urinary crystals.  Only 50% of plasma calcium is ionized and available for filtration at the glomerulus. Well over 95% of the calcium filtered at the glomerulus is reabsorbed at both the proximal and distal tubules and limited amounts in the collecting tube. Less… Urinary Ions   



Stone Varieties

A. CALCIUM CALCULI
Calcifications can occur and accumulate in the collecting system,  resulting in nephrolithiasis.  Eighty to eighty-five percent of all urinary stones are calcareous.

Calcium nephrolithiasis is most commonly due to elevated urinary calcium, elevated urinary uric acid, elevated urinary oxalate,  or a decreased level of urinary citrate.

Hypercalciuria is… Stone Varieties   



kidney blood flow1 - phosphorus1 - sphincter deficiency4 - klotho hormone1 - radiotherapy3 - intravenous pyelography5 - metastasize1 - urine levels1 - urine protein1 - sodium bicarbonate1 - bladder damage1 - french catheters4 - nephrosis1 - systolic blood pressure1 - joslin diabetes center1 - lower urinary tract symptoms3 - risk of kidney failure1 - retinal hemorrhages1 - food and drug administration1 - nausea1 - dialysis centers2 - hemolytic uremic syndrome1 - kreidberg1 - body mass index2 - vesicoureteral reflux6 - risk of diabetes1 - swelling1 - chocolate1 - psa tests1 - ischaemic heart disease1 -