Urology Today.net

Site updated at Thursday, 12 May 2016

Common Urological Problems

Stones Etiology

Renal & Ureteral stones Etiology

Mineralization in all biologic systems has a common theme in that the crystals and matrix are intertwined. Urinary stones are no exception; they are polycrystalline aggregates composed of varying amounts of crystalloid and organic matrix.  Theories to explain urinary stone disease are incomplete.  Stone formation requires supersaturated urine.  Supersaturation depends on urinary pH,  ionic… Renal & Ureteral stones Etiology   

Urinary Ions

Calcium is a major ion present in urinary crystals.  Only 50% of plasma calcium is ionized and available for filtration at the glomerulus. Well over 95% of the calcium filtered at the glomerulus is reabsorbed at both the proximal and distal tubules and limited amounts in the collecting tube. Less… Urinary Ions   

Stone Varieties

Calcifications can occur and accumulate in the collecting system,  resulting in nephrolithiasis.  Eighty to eighty-five percent of all urinary stones are calcareous.

Calcium nephrolithiasis is most commonly due to elevated urinary calcium, elevated urinary uric acid, elevated urinary oxalate,  or a decreased level of urinary citrate.

Hypercalciuria is… Stone Varieties   

aminoaciduria1 - ectopic pregnancy2 - stone disease prevention1 - srtr1 - urinary stasis1 - renal medulla1 - permanent kidney damage1 - rectal balloon1 - adrenocortical carcinoma1 - kidney blood flow1 - fresenius1 - mortality1 - prostate tissue cells1 - hormone treatment1 - interstitial cystitis2 - cardiovascular issues1 - cystic anomalies1 - embryological development1 - lund university1 - kidneys2 - bloody diarrhea1 - cause of infertility1 - clitoris3 - resistant to hormone treatment1 - surgery1 - biomarker1 - hormonal treatment1 - swimming1 - filter blood1 - stress urinary incontinence1 -