Urology Today.net

Site updated at Thursday, 12 May 2016

Common Urological Problems


Urinary Ions

Calcium is a major ion present in urinary crystals.  Only 50% of plasma calcium is ionized and available for filtration at the glomerulus. Well over 95% of the calcium filtered at the glomerulus is reabsorbed at both the proximal and distal tubules and limited amounts in the collecting tube. Less… Urinary Ions   

Stone Varieties

Calcifications can occur and accumulate in the collecting system,  resulting in nephrolithiasis.  Eighty to eighty-five percent of all urinary stones are calcareous.

Calcium nephrolithiasis is most commonly due to elevated urinary calcium, elevated urinary uric acid, elevated urinary oxalate,  or a decreased level of urinary citrate.

Hypercalciuria is… Stone Varieties   

Urinary Stone Disease - Special Situations

Urinary stones associated with renal transplantation are rare. Perirenal nerves are severed at the time of renal harvesting. Classic renal colic is not found in these patients.

The patients usually are admitted with the presumptive diagnosis of graft rejection. Only after appropriate radiographic and ultrasonic evaluation is the… Urinary Stone Disease - Special Situations   

Urinary Stone Disease Prevention

In general,  50%  of patients experience recurrent urinary stones within 5 years without prophylactic intervention.

Appropriate education and preventive measures are best instituted with a motivated patient after spontaneous stone passage or surgical stone removal. Risk factors as described previously should be identified and modified, if possible.

Irrespective of the final metabolic evaluation… Urinary Stone Disease Prevention   

uti7 - chronic dehydration1 - diarrhea1 - thiazide diuretic1 - hemorrhagic inflammation1 - urinary incontinence2 - kidney-damaging treatments1 - secondary tumor1 - nocturnal enuresis3 - enterocele5 - adolescent obesity1 - cystectomy1 - bjui1 - urethral pressure measurement3 - intravenous pyelography5 - lower urinary tract8 - physical examination1 - complex diverticula1 - prostate cancer treatment5 - fluoroscopic imaging1 - long-term dialysis1 - female urethra1 - bulbocavernosus reflex1 - hemodialysis therapy1 - hypoxia1 - prevent pregnancy1 - minimal glomerular lesions1 - dstyk1 - cprs1 - prostate cancer outcomes1 -