Urology Today.net

Site updated at Thursday, 12 May 2016

Common Urological Problems

Hypercalciuria

Stone Varieties

A. CALCIUM CALCULI
Calcifications can occur and accumulate in the collecting system,  resulting in nephrolithiasis.  Eighty to eighty-five percent of all urinary stones are calcareous.

Calcium nephrolithiasis is most commonly due to elevated urinary calcium, elevated urinary uric acid, elevated urinary oxalate,  or a decreased level of urinary citrate.

Hypercalciuria is… Stone Varieties   



Urinary Stone Disease - Special Situations

A. RENAL TRANSPLANTATION
Urinary stones associated with renal transplantation are rare. Perirenal nerves are severed at the time of renal harvesting. Classic renal colic is not found in these patients.

The patients usually are admitted with the presumptive diagnosis of graft rejection. Only after appropriate radiographic and ultrasonic evaluation is the… Urinary Stone Disease - Special Situations   



Urinary Stone Disease Evaluation

A. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
Urinary stones can mimic other retroperitoneal and peritoneal pathologic states.  A full differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen should be made, including acute appendicitis, ectopic and unrecognized pregnancies, ovarian pathologic conditions including twisted ovarian cysts, diverticular disease,  bowel obstruction,  biliary stones with and without obstruction, peptic ulcer disease, acute… Urinary Stone Disease Evaluation   



Urinary Stone Disease Prevention

In general,  50%  of patients experience recurrent urinary stones within 5 years without prophylactic intervention.

Appropriate education and preventive measures are best instituted with a motivated patient after spontaneous stone passage or surgical stone removal. Risk factors as described previously should be identified and modified, if possible.

Irrespective of the final metabolic evaluation… Urinary Stone Disease Prevention   



Long-term calcium and vitamin D supplement use may be linked to increased risk of kidney stones

Calcium and vitamin D supplements are associated with high calcium levels in the blood and urine, which could increase the risk of kidney stones, a new study finds. The results will be presented Tuesday at The Endocrine Society’s 94th Annual Meeting in Houston.

“The use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation may not be… Long-term calcium and vitamin D supplement use may be linked to increased risk of kidney stones   



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