Urology Today.net

Site updated at Thursday, 12 May 2016

Common Urological Problems

Calcium

Urinary Ions

A. CALCIUM
Calcium is a major ion present in urinary crystals.  Only 50% of plasma calcium is ionized and available for filtration at the glomerulus. Well over 95% of the calcium filtered at the glomerulus is reabsorbed at both the proximal and distal tubules and limited amounts in the collecting tube. Less… Urinary Ions   



Stone Varieties

A. CALCIUM CALCULI
Calcifications can occur and accumulate in the collecting system,  resulting in nephrolithiasis.  Eighty to eighty-five percent of all urinary stones are calcareous.

Calcium nephrolithiasis is most commonly due to elevated urinary calcium, elevated urinary uric acid, elevated urinary oxalate,  or a decreased level of urinary citrate.

Hypercalciuria is… Stone Varieties   



Urinary Stone Disease - Special Situations

A. RENAL TRANSPLANTATION
Urinary stones associated with renal transplantation are rare. Perirenal nerves are severed at the time of renal harvesting. Classic renal colic is not found in these patients.

The patients usually are admitted with the presumptive diagnosis of graft rejection. Only after appropriate radiographic and ultrasonic evaluation is the… Urinary Stone Disease - Special Situations   



More U.S. teens diagnosed with kidney stones

More teenagers are being diagnosed with kidney stones now than in years past, a study from one U.S. state suggests.

The research, which followed Minnesota children from 1984 to 2008, found that the rate of kidney stones climbed six percent each year among teenagers.

Between 1984 and 1990, the annual rate was 13 cases… More U.S. teens diagnosed with kidney stones   



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