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Site updated at Thursday, 12 May 2016

Common Urological Problems

General Urology - Common Urological Problems



The Balance Concept - The Urinary System
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Urinary Stone DiseaseApr 29 11
The kidneys preserve a very delicate balance in the body. They compensate for your food and fluid intake to maintain this balance.

For instance,… The Balance Concept  - The Urinary System   


How the Kidneys Work
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Urinary Stone DiseaseApr 29 11
Your blood transports nutrients and oxygen to the cells of the body and carries away waste material that the body does not need. These… How the Kidneys Work   


The Urinary System and How It Works
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Urinary Stone DiseaseApr 29 11
The urinary system cleans the body of wastes. It gets rid of everything that the body does not need, to maintain balance in the… The Urinary System and How It Works   


What you need to know about Kidney Stones
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Urinary Stone DiseaseApr 28 11
The torment of a kidney stone attack is not easily forgotten. It is often impossible to believe that something so little can cause so… What you need to know about Kidney Stones   


Treatment of Gonococcal Infections
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Sexually Transmitted Diseases • • Urethritis & CervicitisAug 05 10
There are an estimated 600,000 new gonococcal infections per year in the United States.  In men,  most infections cause symptoms that cause the patient… Treatment of Gonococcal Infections   


Urethritis in Men
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Sexually Transmitted Diseases • • Urethritis & CervicitisAug 05 10
Urethritis,  or urethral inflammation,  is often caused by infection. Characteristically, patients complain of urethral discharge and dysuria. On examination the discharge may be purulent… Urethritis in Men   


Anomalies of the Distal Tubule
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
Defects of Hydrogen Ion Secretion & Bicarbonate Reabsorption (Classic Renal Tubular Acidosis, Type I)
Failure to secrete hydrogen ion and to form… Anomalies of the Distal Tubule   


Anomalies of the Proximal Tubule
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
Defects of Amino Acid Reabsorption
A. Congenital Cystinuria
Increased excretion of cystine results in the formation of cystine calculi in the… Anomalies of the Proximal Tubule   


Hereditary Renal Diseases
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
The importance of inheritance and the familial incidence of disease warrant the inclusion of a classification of hereditary renal diseases. Although relatively uncommon in… Hereditary Renal Diseases   


Diseases of the Renal Tubules & Interstitium
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
Interstitial Nephritis
Acute interstitial diseases are usually due to sensitivity to drugs, including antibiotics (penicillin, sulfonamides), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and phenytoin. The pathologic… Diseases of the Renal Tubules & Interstitium   


Clinical Findings in Nephrosis
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
A. SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
Edema may appear insidiously and increase slowly or can appear suddenly and accumulate rapidly. Symptoms other than those… Clinical Findings in Nephrosis   


Renal Involvement in Collagen Diseases
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
Although it may not be accurate to classify all of these disorders as collagen diseases, disseminated lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic angiitis scleroderma, Wegener’s… Renal Involvement in Collagen Diseases   


Nephrotic Syndrome
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
Essentials of Diagnosis and General Considerations
  • Edema
  • Proteinuria >3.5 g/day
  • Hypoalbuminemia <3 g/dL
  • Hyperlipidemia: cholesterol >300 mg/100 mL
Nephrotic Syndrome   


Glomerulonephritis
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
The clinical manifestations of glomerular renal disease are apt to consist only of varying degrees of hematuria, excretion of characteristic formed elements in the… Glomerulonephritis   


Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
This condition has several pulmonary-renal diseases. The patient usually gives a history of recent hemoptysis and often of malaise,  anorexia,  and headache.  A severe… Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis   


Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
A. ESSENTIALS OF DIAGNOSIS
  • History of streptococcal infection
  • Mild generalized edema,  mild hypertension,  retinal hemorrhages
  • Gross hematuria; protein, erythrocyte casts,…
Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis   


IgA Nephropathy
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
Primary   hematuria   (idiopathic   benign   and   recurrent hematuria,  Berger’s disease)  is now known to be an immune complex glomerulopathy in… IgA Nephropathy   


Urethral & Prepucial Stones
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Urinary Stone DiseaseJul 25 10
Urethral calculi usually originate from the bladder and rarely from the upper tracts. Most ureteral stones that pass spontaneously into the bladder can pass… Urethral & Prepucial Stones   


Prostatic & Seminal Vesicle Stones
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Urinary Stone DiseaseJul 25 10
Prostatic calculi are found within the prostate gland per se and are found uncommonly within the prostatic urethra.

They are thought to represent calcified… Prostatic & Seminal Vesicle Stones   


Bladder Stones
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Urinary Stone DiseaseJul 25 10
Bladder calculi usually are a manifestation of an underlying pathologic condition, including voiding dysfunction or a foreign body. Voiding dysfunction may be due to… Bladder Stones   


Urinary Stone Disease Prevention
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Urinary Stone DiseaseJul 25 10
In general,  50%  of patients experience recurrent urinary stones within 5 years without prophylactic intervention.

Appropriate education and preventive measures are best instituted with… Urinary Stone Disease Prevention   


Urinary Stone Disease Intervention
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Urinary Stone DiseaseJul 25 10
A. CONSERVATIVE OBSERVATION
Most ureteral calculi pass and do not require intervention.

Spontaneous passage depends on stone size,  shape,  location,  and associated… Urinary Stone Disease Intervention   


Urinary Stone Disease Evaluation
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Urinary Stone DiseaseJul 25 10
A. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
Urinary stones can mimic other retroperitoneal and peritoneal pathologic states.  A full differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen should… Urinary Stone Disease Evaluation   


Urinary Stone Disease - Special Situations
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Urinary Stone DiseaseJul 25 10
A. RENAL TRANSPLANTATION
Urinary stones associated with renal transplantation are rare. Perirenal nerves are severed at the time of renal harvesting. Classic… Urinary Stone Disease - Special Situations   


Urinary Stone Disease Symptoms & Signs at Presentation
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Urinary Stone DiseaseJul 25 10
Upper-tract urinary stones usually eventually cause pain.

The character of the pain depends on the location. Calculi small enough to venture down the ureter… Urinary Stone Disease Symptoms & Signs at Presentation   






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