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Common Urological Problems

Medical Renal Disease



Anomalies of the Distal Tubule
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
Defects of Hydrogen Ion Secretion & Bicarbonate Reabsorption (Classic Renal Tubular Acidosis, Type I)
Failure to secrete hydrogen ion and to form… Anomalies of the Distal Tubule   


Anomalies of the Proximal Tubule
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
Defects of Amino Acid Reabsorption
A. Congenital Cystinuria
Increased excretion of cystine results in the formation of cystine calculi in the… Anomalies of the Proximal Tubule   


Hereditary Renal Diseases
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
The importance of inheritance and the familial incidence of disease warrant the inclusion of a classification of hereditary renal diseases. Although relatively uncommon in… Hereditary Renal Diseases   


Diseases of the Renal Tubules & Interstitium
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
Interstitial Nephritis
Acute interstitial diseases are usually due to sensitivity to drugs, including antibiotics (penicillin, sulfonamides), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and phenytoin. The pathologic… Diseases of the Renal Tubules & Interstitium   


Clinical Findings in Nephrosis
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
A. SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
Edema may appear insidiously and increase slowly or can appear suddenly and accumulate rapidly. Symptoms other than those… Clinical Findings in Nephrosis   


Renal Involvement in Collagen Diseases
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
Although it may not be accurate to classify all of these disorders as collagen diseases, disseminated lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic angiitis scleroderma, Wegener’s… Renal Involvement in Collagen Diseases   


Nephrotic Syndrome
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
Essentials of Diagnosis and General Considerations
  • Edema
  • Proteinuria >3.5 g/day
  • Hypoalbuminemia <3 g/dL
  • Hyperlipidemia: cholesterol >300 mg/100 mL
Nephrotic Syndrome   


Glomerulonephritis
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
The clinical manifestations of glomerular renal disease are apt to consist only of varying degrees of hematuria, excretion of characteristic formed elements in the… Glomerulonephritis   


Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
This condition has several pulmonary-renal diseases. The patient usually gives a history of recent hemoptysis and often of malaise,  anorexia,  and headache.  A severe… Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis   


Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
A. ESSENTIALS OF DIAGNOSIS
  • History of streptococcal infection
  • Mild generalized edema,  mild hypertension,  retinal hemorrhages
  • Gross hematuria; protein, erythrocyte casts,…
Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis   


IgA Nephropathy
General Urology - Common Urological Problems • • Medical Renal DiseaseJul 29 10
Primary   hematuria   (idiopathic   benign   and   recurrent hematuria,  Berger’s disease)  is now known to be an immune complex glomerulopathy in… IgA Nephropathy   






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