Urology Today.net

Site updated at Thursday, 12 May 2016

Common Urological Problems

Stones Etiology

Renal & Ureteral stones Etiology

Mineralization in all biologic systems has a common theme in that the crystals and matrix are intertwined. Urinary stones are no exception; they are polycrystalline aggregates composed of varying amounts of crystalloid and organic matrix.  Theories to explain urinary stone disease are incomplete.  Stone formation requires supersaturated urine.  Supersaturation depends on urinary pH,  ionic… Renal & Ureteral stones Etiology   

Urinary Ions

Calcium is a major ion present in urinary crystals.  Only 50% of plasma calcium is ionized and available for filtration at the glomerulus. Well over 95% of the calcium filtered at the glomerulus is reabsorbed at both the proximal and distal tubules and limited amounts in the collecting tube. Less… Urinary Ions   

Stone Varieties

Calcifications can occur and accumulate in the collecting system,  resulting in nephrolithiasis.  Eighty to eighty-five percent of all urinary stones are calcareous.

Calcium nephrolithiasis is most commonly due to elevated urinary calcium, elevated urinary uric acid, elevated urinary oxalate,  or a decreased level of urinary citrate.

Hypercalciuria is… Stone Varieties   

pyonephrosis1 - microrna1 - rapd1 - kidney blood pressure1 - genetic factors1 - kidney, renal1 - markers of prostate cancer1 - calcium nephrolithiasis3 - potassium1 - common kidney disease1 - x-ray1 - pulmonary hypoplasia1 - pelvic circulation1 - creatinine levels1 - lpn1 - focused ultrasound surgery foundation1 - teen pregnancy1 - diagnostic tools1 - asymptomatic bacteriuria1 - prostate removal surgery1 - kidney infection4 - menstrual cycle1 - circumcision3 - marijuana1 - radiation therapy10 - metastatic prostate cancer5 - laparoscopic partial nephrectomy1 - colorectal cancer1 - kidney recipients1 - gastrointestinal tract1 -