Urology Today.net

Site updated at Thursday, 12 May 2016

Common Urological Problems

Stones Etiology

Renal & Ureteral stones Etiology

Mineralization in all biologic systems has a common theme in that the crystals and matrix are intertwined. Urinary stones are no exception; they are polycrystalline aggregates composed of varying amounts of crystalloid and organic matrix.  Theories to explain urinary stone disease are incomplete.  Stone formation requires supersaturated urine.  Supersaturation depends on urinary pH,  ionic… Renal & Ureteral stones Etiology   



Urinary Ions

A. CALCIUM
Calcium is a major ion present in urinary crystals.  Only 50% of plasma calcium is ionized and available for filtration at the glomerulus. Well over 95% of the calcium filtered at the glomerulus is reabsorbed at both the proximal and distal tubules and limited amounts in the collecting tube. Less… Urinary Ions   



Stone Varieties

A. CALCIUM CALCULI
Calcifications can occur and accumulate in the collecting system,  resulting in nephrolithiasis.  Eighty to eighty-five percent of all urinary stones are calcareous.

Calcium nephrolithiasis is most commonly due to elevated urinary calcium, elevated urinary uric acid, elevated urinary oxalate,  or a decreased level of urinary citrate.

Hypercalciuria is… Stone Varieties   



respiration1 - tgen1 - urinary tract dysfunction1 - calcium4 - preemptive kidney transplantation1 - johnson and johnson1 - nephrocalcinosis3 - masturbate1 - neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin1 - percutaneous nephrolithotomy1 - heart disease9 - gross hematuria1 - renal cell carcinoma5 - prostate removal surgery1 - altered appetite1 - risk of stone1 - leak-point pressure4 - kidney transplants3 - lithotripsy1 - bladder wall1 - cystine lithiasis1 - high-salt diet1 - cprs1 - rectocele5 - cryptorchidism1 - cancerous tumor1 - asymptomatic hematuria2 - kidney cancer10 - non-skin cancer1 - conventional ultrasound1 -