A. CALCIUM CALCULI
Calcifications can occur and accumulate in the collecting system, resulting in nephrolithiasis. Eighty to eighty-five percent of all urinary stones are calcareous.
Calcium nephrolithiasis is most commonly due to elevated urinary calcium, elevated urinary uric acid, elevated urinary oxalate, or a decreased level of urinary citrate.
Urinary Stone Disease - Special Situations
A. RENAL TRANSPLANTATION
Urinary stones associated with renal transplantation are rare. Perirenal nerves are severed at the time of renal harvesting. Classic renal colic is not found in these patients.
The patients usually are admitted with the presumptive diagnosis of graft rejection. Only after appropriate radiographic and ultrasonic evaluation is the…
Diseases of the Renal Tubules & Interstitium
Acute interstitial diseases are usually due to sensitivity to drugs, including antibiotics (penicillin, sulfonamides), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and phenytoin. The pathologic hallmark of acute interstitial nephritis is the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interstitium.
A typical presentation is a rapid deterioration in renal function associated with a recent introduction…