Urology Today.net

Site updated at Thursday, 12 May 2016

Common Urological Problems

Citrate

Urinary Ions

A. CALCIUM
Calcium is a major ion present in urinary crystals.  Only 50% of plasma calcium is ionized and available for filtration at the glomerulus. Well over 95% of the calcium filtered at the glomerulus is reabsorbed at both the proximal and distal tubules and limited amounts in the collecting tube. Less… Urinary Ions   



Stone Varieties

A. CALCIUM CALCULI
Calcifications can occur and accumulate in the collecting system,  resulting in nephrolithiasis.  Eighty to eighty-five percent of all urinary stones are calcareous.

Calcium nephrolithiasis is most commonly due to elevated urinary calcium, elevated urinary uric acid, elevated urinary oxalate,  or a decreased level of urinary citrate.

Hypercalciuria is… Stone Varieties   



Urinary Stone Disease - Special Situations

A. RENAL TRANSPLANTATION
Urinary stones associated with renal transplantation are rare. Perirenal nerves are severed at the time of renal harvesting. Classic renal colic is not found in these patients.

The patients usually are admitted with the presumptive diagnosis of graft rejection. Only after appropriate radiographic and ultrasonic evaluation is the… Urinary Stone Disease - Special Situations   



New recommendations to prevent recurrent kidney stones

In a new evidence-based clinical practice guideline published today in Annals of Internal Medicine, the American College of Physicians (ACP) recommends that people who have had a kidney stone increase their fluid intake to achieve at least two liters of urine per day to prevent another kidney stone from forming. If increased fluid intake… New recommendations to prevent recurrent kidney stones   



low-risk prostate cancer3 - systolic blood pressure1 - pelvic irradiation1 - perineal membrane1 - recurrent hematuria1 - luts7 - postpartum depression1 - rectal carcinoid1 - brachytherapy2 - clinical journal of the american society nephrology3 - x chromosome1 - crystalluria2 - kidney injury risk1 - neurological disorder1 - reflux1 - omega-31 - patient care1 - cadmium toxicity1 - bicycling1 - sex after prostate removal surgery1 - heart risk1 - genetic disease1 - alpha blockers1 - autosomal dominant fsgs1 - robot-assisted surgery1 - hypocalcemia1 - calcium4 - renal arteries2 - vytorin1 - interstitial cystitis2 -